A Study on the Impact of Information Technology on the Logistics Industry. http://www.abc-ekonomii.net.pl/s/magazyn.html, 05.05.2013. http://www.google.pl/#hl=pl&gs_rn=12&gs_ri=psy-, 05.05.2013. http://www.scl.com.pl/systemy-informatyczne,d18.html, 14.05.2013. http://www.clip-group.com/2,onas.html, 15.05.2013. http://newsroom.electrolux.com/pl/electrolux, 20.07.2013. http://www.best-logistics.com/oferta/transpo. As the VP or Director of Global Supply Chain for your company, you are to develop an operational plan to export a product from the country of your choice to a country of your choice. * Overview of Logistics Logistics and Supply Chain Management Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts 11 May Hughes (1998) Road maps are used as guides for evaluation performance. commercialization referred to anti-theft systems. identifier, the GTIN trading unit identifier, the production date, etc. When you select your team, please advise which country you wish to study (under the proposal assignment). Currently the following standard barcode symbols, packages of little space, such as syringes, vials, communication subunits, etc. of carriage and to inform the vendor about the name of the. and storage spaces for storing caravans in the time of winter. driver's license and vehicle registration, valid third party liability insurance; proof of payment of required fees for the use of toll roads; transport document that contains information about transported goods; appropriate authorization required in road transport; documents required for the road transportation of dangerous goods; . (using the term "multimodal" in this context is incorrect). (ed. The research focuses on XYZ Company which is part of a large multi-national American organization they assemble transmissions for the North American Truck market. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:36u_7W8us4UJ:kis.pwszchelm.pl/publikacje/V. Literati Awards. Different types of algorithms are used for various types of production. intermodal operations) and external (i.e. other existing types of policies and the applicable laws and other regulations; , establishment, implementation and monitoring of business continuity management. characteristics, for instance, gross weight, are presented in a standard size. without automatic identification using a variety of instruments and tools which include: distribution of stocks, using ADC techniques. All content in this area was uploaded by Andrzej Szymonik on Mar 04, 2016, 1. a wider range of goods and comfort shopping; facilitate efficient communication for the managers; . recognized as a global GS1 identifier which in a simple and comprehensive way can fulfill the, containers at the time of transport and warehousing, P, . insurers in the construction of the property (cargo) insurance in international transport. http://www.poradnikhurtownika.com/content/slownik-pojec-handlowych, 10.11.2013. http://www.ptzp.org.pl/files/konferencje/kzz/artyk_pdf_2009/076_Lenart_a2.pdf, https://www.google.pl/search?q=pozycja+skody+czeskiej+w+europie&ie, http://www.it.pw.edu.pl/twt/loader.php?page=telematyka. The role of green logistics management practices, supply chain traceability and logistics ecocentricity in sustainability performance Yaw Agyabeng-Mensah, Ebenezer Afum, Innocent Senyo Kwasi Acquah, Essel Dacosta, Charles Baah, Esther Ahenkorah. The vendor is obliged to provide the goods alongsid. 4. market. Therefore, plan accordinglyfor first-come,first-serve. Intermodal transport is characterized by: In the opinion of Polish shippers, the barriers of intermodal transport may include, 4.3 Companies of transport and logistics services area, ranking developed by Armstrong and Associates, of B2C mail forwarding, featuring the largest network provider on five continents), freight forwarding company, Kuehne + Nagel has evolved into a leading logistics provider, on a global scale. The basic elements of this concept include. the objectives (the scope of action and the areas of cooperation of participating entities). http://www.biurokarier.ue.wroc.pl/firma/1104/, 2, http://www.outsourcingportal.pl/pl/outsourcing/artykuly/rynek, Typically, the shipper and the carrier construct it together, which sta. profitability. "Logistyka" no 2/2009. International Transportation and Logistics Research Paper (Essay Sample) Instructions: Find the product characteristics of products sold in foreign countries (weight, sizes) or of recipes found in other countries, to determine the prevalence of the metric system. supply chain (they exchange information on sales forecasts, promotional actions etc.). http://www.pks-sa.com/wymiary-naczep.html, 25.07.2012. http://www.benson.pl/?k=strony&m=&ns=208&pns=1,29.07.2012. ); change of the place of residence information, etc. , Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu. division and classification of logistics centers. optimising processes both inside the company and between partner companies. transport volume was much smaller and dominated by bilateral agreements between countries. integrated management systems that support the ABC. The role of green logistics management practices, supply chain traceability and logistics ecocentricity in sustainability performance Yaw Agyabeng-Mensah, Ebenezer Afum, Innocent Senyo Kwasi Acquah, Essel Dacosta, Charles Baah, Esther Ahenkorah. Call for papers. 39, p. 463-475 Paper in proceedings applying bar codes and readers, common use of navigation); benefits of all participants, with simultaneous increase in satisfaction of the final consumer, supply chain, including the international logistic channels, . implemented, they get integrated and become a hybrid solution. One of the most important things to focus on is to keep the patients, who are not seriously. The presented production systems and channels are characterized by. http://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Akredytywa_dokumentowa, 14.08.2012. http://www.broker-serwis.pl/slownik_i.html, 16.08.2012. http://org/wiki/SWIFT_%28bankowo%C5%9B%C4%87%29, 18.08.2012. http://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Systemy_DRP, 22.08.2012. http://kis.pwszchelm.pl/publikacje/V/Stasienko.pdf, 24.08.2012. http://www.systemy-erp.yoyo.pl/?cat=3, 24.08.2012. http://www.supervisor.pl/index.php/ofirmie. warehouses)to the recipient, along with accompanying information; distribution, after-sale service and the circulation of information. or restriction of competition within the Community; packaging waste, thus reducing the final disposal of packaging waste. ; connection with other elements of the telematics system; information resources stored in databases in the transport system; transport as well as in search and rescue operations. Subsequently, Stock (2001) completed his third paper on PhD dissertations within logistics and logistics-related areas, this one covering the period from 1992 to 1998 (317 dissertations in all). In 20 years it will have 16.9 million flights a year - this means that, by 2030 in Europe there will be as many annual flights, as there are people in Beijing. Bartczak K., Technologie informatyczne i telekomunikacyjne jako podstawa tworzenia roads all modes of transport (e.g. operational perfection - a basis for improvement in business partners relations; integrated deliveries reliant upon demand (depending on company's efficiency), data warehousing which is one of key factor. lack of co-funding of intermodal transport by the State - 93.3 % ; poor quality railway infrastructure , low commercial speed - 96.7 % ; high costs of terminal investments - 76.7 % ; small number of terminals and transfer points - 71.1 % ; lack of specialized rolling stock - 61.7 % ; difficulties in access to the point infrastructure - 58.3 % ; the level of competition in the market for rail intermodal transport - 51.7 %. sea and coastal passenger transport - this subclass includes: passenger transport on the high seas and coastal waters, scheduled or unscheduled. Instruments and tools used in modern transportation systems, 8.3 Telematics in transportation processes, 9.2. information system, whereas, the logistic label with, load (e.g. variety of decision-making in hazardous situations in the logistics system. commercial applications, mass-market, comprehensive information and management; safety-enhancing applications - power management, security, basic systems; http://www.it.pw.edu.pl/twt/loader.php?page=tele. IT systems for international logistics, The content of the chapters and the sub-chapters has been selected in such a way that. Students will be required to determine a product in which they wish to export from a city of their choice to the country of their choosing. measuring stations located on the ground; to most other solutions, described further, the presented system provides. ensuring high level environmental protection. locating transport objects in real-time using GPS; monitoring objects using detailed, digital city maps and road maps of Poland and Europe; 24/7 access to current and archive information regarding the location of the objects. manufacture, inventory and transportation are created. must therefore become thoroughly familiar with the functioning of the entire supply chain. ); extraction, to the place where these products are supplied. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. ). IBM, DHL, GS1, Hewlett Packard, IKEA, Boeing, Cisco Systems and others. Every company requires a well-developed supply chain in order to maintain the quality of its production and to produce goods and services on time. the activity of terminals, such as: airport stations and harbors etc.. fire-fighting and fire protection services at airports; handling of goods in seaports - the subclass includes: loading, unloading and handling of cargo and luggage of passengers in seaports, multimodal - transportation with at least two different transport modes, http://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Transport_intermodalny. to exhibit an ordering of stable cycles similar to Sarkovskii ordering, product, distribution channel of a product or the supply of materials is optimized as well. the implementation and effective use of AM. From this point, the costs and the risks are borne by the buyer. Therefore every logistic system must put effort, operations, the organization and the conduct of ac, liberation of threat (of an event), depends on. are to be made, and when they are to be analyzed). The reference papers provided by excellenthomeworks.com serve as model papers for students and are not to be submitted as it is. how to find new channels and markets, including e-markets, for logistic services? In practice, we distinguish the following types of international logistics channels. inland ports, package sorting places, intermodal freight terminals. International Academic Journal of Procurement and Supply Chain Management, 1 (5), 50-71 . i.e. by the degree of the following objectives, quality level of supply service required by the client (the so -, channel, the cooperating companies (e. manufacturing and supplies in one region; Oficyna a Wolters Kluwer business, Warsaw 2010, p. 516. with the use of the widely accessible Internet network. The GS1 logistic label consists of three parts. Term Paper on Logistics Management: Logistics management is the complicated and varied process of the organization of the appropriate supply chain for the chosen company. Order now. Globalization and international logistics, 1.2 Theoretical foundations of international logistics, 1.3 Networks and channels of international logistics, 2.1. This paper, therefore, seeks to redefine the role of transportation within a logistics system through the analysis of several applications. available resources of production capacities in machine hours. Gammelgaard (2003) also documents the use of case study methods in logistics, both for quantitative and qualitative research designs. Networks and channels of international logistics, International logistics consists of two basic elements, of the logistic network, oftentimes called transport points. The 1990s. complaints and delays, fires, theft, destruction). International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applic ations. identification, prioritizing and aggregating demand in the supply chain; identification, assessment and aggregating of the supply chain resources; balancing of supply chain resources with supply needs; setting and communicating supply chain plans. vehicles (AVI - Automatic Vehicle Identification); security, will be possible only after the certification of the Galileo system. the improvement in production planning and the possibility of its tracking; lowering the costs connected with decreasing of the stock state; complex reporting, reports about production planning and execution; ordering the information flow and facilitating the access to it; (ERP) (more often translated by producers as. Strategy. From the technical point of view th, integration with other systems and an active and immediate participation in the whole chain of. Banaszak Z., Kłos S., Mleczko J., Zintegrowane systemy logistyczne, PWE, Warsaw Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu, Poznan 2000. transactions and operations in virtual business ca, Cf. Its aim is to create a system of air traffic management of ne, needs of aviation, according to the projections contained in the Fli. Length: Contingent on your operation. The paper will provide a conceptual framework to develop further the processes involved in a logistic chain. Barrow K., Danish national smartcard nears full coverage, [in:] "International Companies of transport and logistics services area, 5. independent container points, airports, seaports, logistic centres, etc. It is estimated that systems such as ERP will not be functional in a few year time in the. The Journal Impact 2019-2020 of International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications is 3.220, which is just updated in 2020.Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications grew by 55.56 %.The Journal Impact Quartile of International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications is Q1. The process of creating a logistic unit encompasses: ability to apply mechanical means in manipulation; group and collective packaging (intermediary packaging); prevent environmental pollution, via rational management o. to establish measures aiming at packaging waste prevention; , Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI). standardized dimensional system, facilitate storage, form unit load, etc. are met (especially in international transport); Service is required along with the driving form. Hi there! Tools facilitating international logistics management, 3.1. , ensuring appropriate customer service level, both internal and, Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment, http://twojbiznes.infor.pl/index.php/dzialy/praktyka/artykul, . This system can be seen as a closed set, with the following formula: where KSE is Euro-logistic network configuration. not a contract of carriage, is only a confirmation of the contract of carriage. implementation of logistic packaging chains; implementation of modern communication systems, e.g. by the company creating it. Their basic element is, The modules usually cover the following areas, Cf. may relate not only to industrial companies, but also the trade and logistics ones; efficiency measures for business parameters. In the interest of learning, each team should have a different country. distribution - final assembly, packaging, delivery. or elimination of traffic violation etc. requirements for the establishment and implementation of procedures for int. The problem also applies to the security service and the means of transport themselves. focus on the added value as the most essential element of joint business. categories, e.g. Euro pallets; solid conveyors, cranes, rack stackers and rail trolleys allows. If at the national level has not been further divided, international level (class = subclass), such subclass is desig. http://www.biznesowe.edu.pl/117-business_process_reengineering/, 29.12.2010. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/baselining.html, 28.12.2012. http://www.eprzewoznik.pl/tag/elektroniczny-list-przewozowy-cmr/, 11.09.2013. http://www.google.pl/#hl=pl&output, 1205.2012. http://www.gs1pl.org/tsl/t-scale-koordynacja-procesow-transportowych, http://www.klub-doskonalenia.pl/show.php?component=Text&op=ShowText&id=97. It is achieved by optimization of the supplies needed for production. videoconferences, the Internet; standardization of production and inventory control methods and logistic processes; standardization of operational costs balance in all supply chain participants; costs of stock depletion (including lost sales and delayed orders); the costs of information flow (the level of customer service is. fire, explosion, an accident of the means of transport (Institute Cargo Clauses "C"), , among others, dependent on packages that should be properly designed and tailor-made to suit. - GTIN-13, GTIN-8, GTIN- 12 numbers used; number of trading unit, the GTIN-14 for international trade. solutions normed by national and international organizations; The ISO 28000:2007 norm, which was created especiall. damage to a computer system, automatic identification). The section on land and pipeline transport includes: Section is marked by a single letter; it divides t, other as seen from the perspective of traditionally shaped, general divisio. formation, classification, purpose and strategy would be called. Below, there are some of them: located in one area subject to the rules set by the management board; local economic or planning policy objectives, etc. carrying out simulations of changes and responses of all the links of the chain. Definition and functions of logistics centers, 3.3 Equipment and infrastructure of a logistics center, 4. The paper also describes limitations with the current dominance of quantitative (especially survey) research in logistics. the increase in meaning customer service quality; specialist - specialization may result from the, local - radius of influence , the lowest level in, The logistics centers that constitute the p. Logistics centers that fulfill own needs of economic entities: provision of a comprehensive storage service; storage buildings and structures, allowing storage and protection of inventory; internal roads and access roads, mainly for cars, but also for the wagons; reusable loading units, such as pallets or containers; equipment and safety-related measures such. International Logistics and other kinds of academic papers in our essays database at Many Essays. information (e.g. loading and the time of delivery to the port. services that increase the effectiveness of enterprise operations and the whole supply chain. This affects the openness of the system and means that it is easily integrated with other. partners within providing them with access to information about shared processes. Advanced solutions to practical problems. cargo water transport vessels hire with crew included; passenger aircraft on fixed routes and according to the established timetable. Electronic pen and paper documentation, 7. repair of containers and other transport packaging, expertise - services requiring compliance e.g. Examples that can be taken into consideration are described. precise coordination, the use of GNSS as a time source for other systems. and storage economy in four sections - Appendix 2.1. Then, you have 2 weeks to complete the work. Material Requirements Planning system (MRP). Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management (Polish translation), Helion. cooperation in international logistics is expressed by activities such as: implementing the latest warehousing techniques. Logistics And Logistics 1271 Words | 6 Pages. The implementation of the ECR strategy should provide clear and notabl. The goal of the research paper will be to study and establish how information technology has impacted on the logistics industry. Most insurers have three areas of protection to choose from. ); stations, petrol stations, social and living rooms, banking services, insurance ); emergency power - battery room, fire and smoke detectors, 24/7 security - monitoring. obtaining information (sensors, video cameras, radars); presenting information for the telematics system administrators (GIS systems, access. http://progressmakers.pl/page.php/1/show/1667, 02.11.2013. http://www.lr.org.pl/index.php?page=uslugi_morskie. This is feasible by following the GS1 global standard system (previously EAN.UCC). Bulletine, Ministry of Infrastructure, Warsaw 2010, 4/2010. International Logistics 4887 Words | 20 Pages. market customer, with particular focus on e-logistics? are open. organizational models that optimize goods and informat, . operational service for logistics processes. between the participants of the supplier - receiver relationship). Basing on this approach, we can distinguish, speed - concerning the tasks carried out since the receipt of the order to obtaining financial, knowledge and understanding of the expected results of cooperation, optimization of the supply level on the scale of the international logistics channel, together, problemy rozwoju dyscypliny praktyczne, concentrates on four interrelated objectives, which are. International Supply Chain Management,Research Paper,Logistics : Final Paper Focus of the Final Paper International Logistics, Inc. is a conglomerate based in the United States that specializes in the manufacturing and distribution of high tech equipment. the development of airspace classification rules; the development of rules for the design of airspace (routes and sectors); the development of rules on air traffic flow management. gives a sense of confidence and assurance : the supply chain in accordance with the rule " 7R". exchange, electronic logistic platforms, corporation portals); how much it costs all chain participants (companies) to. objectives and features such as speed of delivery and creating the added value. http://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/Alians_strategiczny, 22.08.2013. http://polish.ruvr.ru/2012_10_24/airbus-samoloty/, 22.08.2013. http://www.interia.pl/informacje-pendolino, 28.08.2013. http://www.pi.gov.pl/Klastry/chapter_86411.asp. waste and recycled materials, with the exception of their collection and disposal. ), the RFID radio identifier, the tag, the transponder. perform business processes in line with unified norms, with lowered risk and costs); the vehicle, safe and economic aircraft); . More details the better but be sure to explain the details; don’t just list them. perform measurements of particular logistics processes in the Euro - channels; mixing the elements of business process engineering, benchmarking and the SCM leaders. within their own field (e.g. Bonfatti F., Gdy marzenia się spełniają -wizja platformy e-logistycznej, uncertainties, which may be caused by the emerging danger (threats) or interference. companies, suppliers of materials and components, manufacturers, service providers, transport, Conclusions are based on source materials listed a, . The most known systems of logistics management support used in practice include: the IT integration within multinational and cooperative supply chains, are as follows. road, rail, air, inland waterway and sea transport); ancillary equipment that facilitates the process of servicing roads and transport points; e name of modal (most likely) points of the logistics network refers to all places of stopo, International logistic channels a network of companies established to, . All articles published in the journal during its time with Springer will remain fully searchable through our websites. Customers Satisfaction in the Logistics Industry: … usage of appropriate manpower and resources to combat the threat. creation and functioning of international logistics; within the confines of international logistics. http://fleet.com.pl/zarzadzanie-flota/paliwa-i-karty-paliwowe,10.06.2013. type, barcode format or transponder size in case of electronic marking. These papers are intended to be used for research and reference purposes only. products must are secured to be delivered on time to a specified place; compared to the one that occurs between the retailer and the consumer; Eurologistic channel. modes of transport together both internal (i.e. http://www.exporter.pl/zarzadzanie/eksport/4zab_ryzyka.html, 19.08.2012. http://www.espedytor.pl/news/166.php, 11.09.2013. Wal-Mart is an epitome of the successful implementation of such a system. , connected with taking over the activity regarding inventory management; rotation system collecting reusable transport packaging . http://mfiles.pl/pl/index.php/%C5%81a%C5%84cuch_dosta. One area of research relates to the uncertainty that the transportation of goods from one place to another introduces to the … (shared services make it possible to. Research Proposal. cluster solutions) than from self- restraint or either administrative or legal factors. GSM station sends the collected data to a central monitoring station (monitoring center). International Logistics Research Paper, basic resignation letter, literary devices in literature, ielts training the global exposure Keep in Touch TFTH TM is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. These disturbances may be divided according to. products; this is particularly visible in the IT sector. Scholarship Essay. Students will be required to determine a product in which they wish to export from a city of their choice and then import into the country/region of their choosing. in logistics research.” An example of such infrequently used methods is the quest of Näslund (2002) for use of the action approach for research design in logistics. All articles published in the journal during its time with Springer will remain fully searchable through our websites. In principle, practically everyone may use its services, as long as they, The satellite vehicle monitoring systems consist of four basic subsystems (Figure 10.1, system is approximately 25 m (90% of. within the supply chain, which is also confirmed by the results of individual study, is for these, systems, which confirms that Polish companies should be implementing systems of this. customs clearance, as every delay means costs for storage and delay in delivery; customs value of the goods, customs clearance etc, the trade agreement, or by referring to the relevant regulations. Each team should have a different country. The mission of the journal is to create an interdisciplinary, cross-sector platform for the publication of scientific articles of a … cities, but also in case of extraordinary events (incidents) in traffic; (TIC), loads and vehicles management centers etc. The international journal LOGISTICS RESEARCH - certified C-Journal - is published by BVL. Principles of Total Logistics management, 1) Safety of selected systems within the logistics chain (warehouse management, transport, environmental studies, IT) - research. managing the demand for products and services: concept to the needs and possibilities of business partners; satisfaction, reflected in the performance of companies; efficiency of processes, and cuts the time of consumers reaction and feedback; generates decent profits when barriers have been overcome. transport of passengers, animals and goods, such as: supporting inland waterway transportation of passengers, animals and goods, such as: supporting air transport of passengers, animals and goods, such as: the so-called intermodal transport in freight transportation. a pallet) but not of its content, accordance with the law requirements (ordinance (EC) no 178/2002) traceability, approximately 99,3% of baggage readability. Companies have a wide range of inventory management methods at their disposal. Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Warsaw 2013. In Poland, transport Management is most often given to the trade partner. We do everything possible to give professional essays International Logistics Research Paper to every student, and we ensure their comfort while they are using our services.International Logistics Research Paper For your convenience, we have an on-site customer support chat. List of Topics for the College Papers in the Field of Logistics ... Getting someone to check your papers before you submit those is essential since all you need is a flawless essay, term paper or research proposal to get the desired grades. This research examines the nature of logistics performance and the contribution of logistics to the firm by investigating the impact of logistics performance on organizational performance. The main objectives of the Single European Sky include, Eurocontrol The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigatio, (including the EU). markets located in the remote parts of the world. The SCOR model includes three levels of processes: http://technologie.nf.pl/Artykul/8256/Str_5/Przeglad. has changed. efficient. for the purchase of components, raw materials and materials. “ why ” or “ how ” may be caused by the buyer or crew, for purposes... Incidental change of the system and means that it is difficult to accomplish any marketing or manufacturing.! Of components ( and production waste ) sold to the security of the successful implementation of successful... F., Gdy marzenia się spełniają -wizja platformy e-logistycznej, '' Logistyka ''.... Automation systems, automatic stacker cranes, material handling equipment for improvement to. List them companies acquire a tool to manage not only what happens inside them but! Operations in virtual business ca, Cf, 1.3 networks and channels are by. Service and the supplier etc. ) context is incorrect ) of procedures for int prices at the push a! Explicit reference contained in the supply chain both inside the company and between partner companies.... As syringes, vials, communication subunits, etc. ) air transportation of goods the... Loading and the Internet ) needs ( value approach ) ; nature as well as and! J., Zintegrowane systemy international logistics research paper, PWE, Warsaw 2010, 4/2010 of rail services as additional can. Danish national smartcard nears full coverage, [ in: ] `` international railway ''. It needs to be analyzed ) ; , establishment, implementation and of! 7Th international Conference on City logistics, both for quantitative and qualitative designs... European Communities attachment below ) for more details is available not just to internal users, not. Protection to choose from to http: //mfiles.pl/p, partner companies ) of our representatives below and we will back... to information about shared processes works creating. A crew, for instance, gross weight, are presented in a way. A system ( this feature is not common among other things: information exchange with the exception of their,! Integrated set of the railway infrastructure - 98.3 % system includes, among other things information... Strategy should provide clear and notabl their basic element is, the of... The managers ; definition and functions of universal, international standards specified by.! How qualitative research designs including for the needs of international logistics research is now archived and no longer receiving with! Systemów telematycznych w transporcie Code, OJ of 4 Dece no longer receiving submissions with this publisher Journal its. Parts of the place of residence information, etc. ) citations for this publication be submitted it! Weather conditions, the logistic network, oftentimes called transport points following areas, Cf information! For international logistics, 2.1 a marked trend in the decisions or actions of the contract carriage. A sense of confidence and assurance: the condition of the concepts for improvement required design. Rail services as additional services can be divided into 6 types the research on., 12 point, times new Roman font when you select your team, please advise country!